A computer is an electronic machine which accepts input process it and produces output systematically.
Common Operating Machine Primarily Used for Technology and Educational Research.
History of computer
The name of the computer is derived for the word ‘compute’ which means to calculate. The first calculating device was Abacus which was discovered in China about 5,000 years ago. Soon this device became very popular even today this device is used in schools to learn the students. But the evolution of the computer started when in the early 17 century. Blaise Pascal discovered a calculator known as a Pascal calculator. This was the first calculator that can add and subtract the numbers. After that Barren Gottfried made a calculator which could even multiply the numbers. But these were early steps in the development of the computer.
Father of computer
Charles Babbage is known as the father of the computer. In the early 19th century Charles Babbage gave the concept of the analytical engine. The modern computer is made on the concept of the analytical engine. S0 Charles Babbage is known as the father of the computer.
First electronic computer
The first electronic computer was ENIAC which was made in 1946. This was a huge computer weighing 30 tons. There were 18000 vacuum tubes on this computer and this computer occupy around 1800 square feet space.
The first computer in India
India bought the first computer from the USA whose name was HEC 2M. The cost of this computer was around 10 lacs and this computer was installed at the head post office of Kolkata. Siddharth was the first computer that was made in India. Rajiv Gandhi is known as the father of computer in India.
Types of computer
There are mainly three types of computers.
Analog computer:- the computer which accepts continuous input known as an analog computer. for example ammeter voltmeter and thermometer.
Digital computer:- a digital computer is a computer that accepts a discrete input. For example digital watch and calculator.
Hybrid computer:- a computer which is a combination of analog and digital computers known as the hybrid computer. For example digital thermometer.
Hardware and software
Hardware:- physical component of a computer that is which can be touched known as hardware. For example keyboard mouse, motherboard, etc.
Software:- software is a program that is needed to communicate with the hardware. For example operating system, driver, MS Word, etc.
Types of software
software are mainly of two types.
System software and application software
System software:- system software is programs that are only used to run hardware. They are not used to solve any user problem. For example, the operating system and drivers.
Application software:- these are the software that is used to solve the user’s problem. They are further categorized into groups.
General-purpose software:- these are the software which can perform a variety of task. For example MS Word and Excel.
Special purpose software:- these are the software that is used to perform a particular task. For example Tally and Photoshop.
Computer Architecture mainly contains four units.
Input unit:- input unit contains all the devices or software which are used to give input to the computer. For example keyboard, mouse, scanner, light pen, MICR, OMR, etc.
Output unit:- devices or software which are used to show output known as the output unit. For example printer, monitor, plotter, etc.
Processing Unit is made of two units.
Control unit:- all the commands and instructions are controlled by the control unit. The main task of the control unit is to manage all the resources of the computer.
Arithmetical and logical unit:- Calculation and logical comparison is performed by ALU is known as the arithmetical logical unit.
Memory unit:- the main function of the memory unit is to store data and instruction for future use. The memory unit is also divided into parts.
Primary memory:- Primary memory also known as the main memory of the computer. This memory is used in the execution of a program or application. For example Ram, Rom and Cache memory.
Secondary memory:– this memory is used only to store data. For example hard disc and all other secondary storage devices.
Importance of computer in our daily life
This is the era of the computer. Nowadays computer is part of our daily life. The mobile we used, washing machine, microwave oven, digital watch all are the example of a computer. We all are surrounded by technology and we cannot even imagine life without a computer.